Institute of African Studies - Columbia University

Courses

African Language Courses

Fall 2016: Advanced Arabic Grammar Review

Middle East: W4216
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
10944
Points: 
3
Location: 
112 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
MW 1:10pm-2:25pm
Instructor: 
Taoufik Ben-Amor

Through reading and writing, students will review Arabic Grammar concepts within the context of linguistic functions such as narration, description, comparison, etc. For example, within the function of narration, students will focus on verb tenses, word order, and adverbials. Based on error analysis in the past twelve years that the Arabic Program has been using Al-Kitaab, emphasis will be placed on common and frequent grammatical errors. Within these linguistic functions and based on error analysis, the course will review the following main concepts:   Types of sentence and sentence/clause structure.The Verb system, pattern meanings and verb complementation.Quadriliteral verb patterns and derivations.Weak Verbs derivations, conjugation, tense frames and negation.Case endings.Types of noun and participle: Noun of time, place, instance, stance, instrument, active and passive participles.Types of construct phrase: al-iDafa.Types of Adverbials and verb complements: Hal, Tamyiz, Maf’ul mutlaq, Maf’ul li’ajlihi, adverbs of time, frequency, place and manner.The number system and countable nouns.Types of maa.Diptotes, al-mamnu’ min-aSSarf. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Advanced Swahili I

Swahili: W3335
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
25454
Points: 
4
Location: 
414 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
TR 12:10pm-2:00pm
Instructor: 
Abdul Nanji

Prerequisites: SWHL W1201-W1202 or the instructor's permission. As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now SWHL 3301. An introduction to the advanced syntactical, morphological, and grammatical structures of Swahili grammar; detailed analysis of Swahili texts; practice in conversation. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Advanced Wolof I

Wolof: W333
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
11945
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TBA
Instructor: 
Mariame S Sy

Fall 2016: Advanced Zulu I

Zulu W3101
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
83647
Points: 
3
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TR 2:40pm-3:55pm
Instructor: 
Sandra Sanneh; Stephane A Charitos

Prerequisites: ZULU W1201-W1202 or the instructor's permission. This course allows students to practice adanced structures of the Zulu language. Please note this course is offered by videoconference from Yale through the Shared Course Initiative.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Elementary Swahili I

Swahili W1101
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
75434
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWR 11:10am-12:00pm
Instructor: 
Abdul Nanji

Essentials of grammar, basic vocabulary, practice in speaking and reading Swahili the most widely used indigenous language of East Africa. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Elementary Swahili I

Swahili W1101
Section: 
002
Call Number: 
69884
Points: 
4
Location: 
254 International Affairs Building
Day/Time: 
TR 6:10pm-8:00pm
Instructor: 
Jane N Clayton

Essentials of grammar, basic vocabulary, practice in speaking and reading Swahili the most widely used indigenous language of East Africa. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Elementary Wolof I

Wolof: W1101
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
12801
Points: 
4
Location: 
352C International Affairs Building
Day/Time: 
MTWR 12:00pm-12:50pm
Instructor: 
Mariame S Sy

Introduction to the basic grammatical structures of Wolof, a major language of West Africa spoken in Senegal and Gambia. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Elementary Yoruba I

Yoruba: W1101
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
27148
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWR 10:10am-11:00am
Instructor: 
Adeolu A Ademoyo; Stephane A Charitos

This course is designed to bring students with no background to a point where they can perform most basic linguistic functions in Yoruba, including greetings, likes/dislikes, telling about yourself, describing places and situations, all in appropriate time frames. The class uses a highly interactive classroom style, supplemented by extensive use of video – both prepared and student-produced – and other computer-assisted tools. Please note this course is offered by videoconferencing from Cornell as part of the Shared Course Initiative.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Elementary Zulu I

Zulu: W1101
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
11033
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWRF 11:35am-12:25pm
Instructor: 
Sandra Sanneh; Stephane A Charitos

Introduces students to the basic structures of Zulu, a Bantu language spoken in South Africa, especially in the Zululand area of KwaZulu/Natal province.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: First Year Arabic I

Middle East: W1210
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
70513
Points: 
5
Location: 
104 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
MTWR 8:50am-9:55am
Instructor: 
Youssef Nouhi

As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 1201. An introduction to the language of classical and modern Arabic literature. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: First Year Arabic I

Middle East: W1210
Section: 
002
Call Number: 
11376
Points: 
5
Location: 
104 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
MTWR 10:10am-11:15am
Instructor: 
Reem Faraj

As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 1201. An introduction to the language of classical and modern Arabic literature. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: First Year Arabic I

Middle East: W1210
Section: 
003
Call Number: 
62697
Points: 
5
Location: 
114 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
MTWR 11:40am-12:45pm
Instructor: 
Rym Bettaieb

As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 1201. An introduction to the language of classical and modern Arabic literature. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: First Year Arabic I

Middle East: W1210
Section: 
004
Call Number: 
17833
Points: 
5
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWR 4:10pm-5:15pm
Instructor: 
May Ahmar

As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 1201. An introduction to the language of classical and modern Arabic literature. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: First Year Arabic II

Middle East: W1211
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
74534
Points: 
5
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWR 8:50am-9:55am
Instructor: 
Ouijdane Absi

Fall 2016: Intermediate Swahili I

Swahili: W1201
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
63730
Points: 
4
Location: 
208 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
MTWR 10:10am-11:00am
Instructor: 
Abdul Nanji

Prerequisites: SWHL W1101-W1102 or the instructor's permission. As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now SWHL 2101.  A review of the essentials of Swahili grammar; detailed analysis of Swahili texts; practice in conversation. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Intermediate Wolof I

Wolof: W1201
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
15764
Points: 
4
Location: 
351C International Affairs Building
Day/Time: 
MW 2:10pm-4:00pm
Instructor: 
Mariame S Sy

Prerequisites: WLOF W1101-W1102 or the instructor's permission. As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now WLOF 2101.  Further develops a student's knowledge of Wolof, a major language of West Africa spoken primarily in Senegal and Gambia. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Intermediate Yoruba I

Yoruba W2101
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
76446
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MWF 8:40am-9:55am
Instructor: 
Bandara Herath; Stephane A Charitos

Prerequisites: YORU W1101-W1102 or the instructor's permission. In this course, learners will continue practicing all four language skills through every day dialogues, writing letters, and describing basic situations. In addition, they will be introduced to Yoruba literature and learn how to read and comprehend basic Yoruba texts, such as newspaper articles. Finally, they will be introduced to current affairs as well as social, artistic and, cultural events and issues in Nigeria. The class uses a highly interactive classroom style, supplemented by extensive use of video – both prepared and student-produced – and other computer-assisted tools. Please note this course is offered by videoconferencing from Cornell as part of the Shared Course Initiative.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Intermediate Zulu I

Zulu: W2101
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
18397
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWRF 10:30am-11:20am
Instructor: 
Sandra Sanneh; Stephane A Charitos

Prerequisites: ZULU W1201-W1202 or the instructor's permission. Provides students with an in-depth review of the essentials of the Zulu grammar. Students are also able to practice their language skills in conversation.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Second Year Arabic I

Middle East: W1214
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
74063
Points: 
5
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWR 10:10am-11:15am
Instructor: 
Rym Bettaieb

Prerequisites: MDES W1210-W1211 or the equivalent. As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 2201. A continuation of the study of the language of contemporary writing. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Second Year Arabic I

Middle East: W1214
Section: 
002
Call Number: 
69308
Points: 
5
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
MTWR 2:40pm-3:45pm
Instructor: 
May Ahmar

Prerequisites: MDES W1210-W1211 or the equivalent. As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 2201. A continuation of the study of the language of contemporary writing. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Second Year Arabic I

Middle East: W1214
Section: 
003
Call Number: 
20484
Points: 
5
Location: 
101 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
MTWR 4:10pm-5:15pm
Instructor: 
Tarik Belhoussein

Prerequisites: MDES W1210-W1211 or the equivalent. As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 2201. A continuation of the study of the language of contemporary writing. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Dirctory of Classes

Fall 2016: Second Year Arabic II

Middle East: W1215
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
67237
Points: 
5
Location: 
101 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
MTWR 2:40pm-3:45pm
Instructor: 
Tarik Belhoussein

Prerequisites: MDES W1210-W1211 or the equivalent. As of academic year 2016-17, this course is now MDES 2202. A continuation of the study of the language of contemporary writing. No P/D/F or R credit is allowed for this class.

CU Directory of Classes


African- American Studies

Fall 2016: Topics in the Black Experience: Honey is my Knife-African Spirituality in the Americas.

African American Studies: C3930
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
78497
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
T 2:10pm-4:00pm
Instructor: 
C. Daniel Dawson

This seminar will investigate the cultural contributions of Africans in the formation of the contemporary Americas. There will be a particular focus on the African religious traditions that have continued and developed in spite of hostile social and political pressures. Because of their important roles in the continuations of African aesthetics, the areas of visual art, music and dance will be emphasized in the exploration of the topic. This seminar will also discuss two important African ethnic groups: the Yoruba of Southwestern Nigeria, and the Bakongo of Central Africa. It will highlight the American religious traditions of these cultures, e.g., Candomblé Nago/Ketu, Santeria/Lucumi, Shango, Xangô, etc., for the Yoruba, and Palo Mayombe, Umbanda, Macumba, Kumina, African-American Christianity, etc., for the Bakongo and other Central Africans. In the course discussions, the Americas are to include Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, the United States and numerous other appropriate locations. There will also be a focus on visual artists like Charles Abramson, Jose Bedia, Juan Boza, Lourdes Lopez, Manuel Mendive, etc., whose works are grounded in African based religions. In addition, we will explore how African religious philosophy has impacted on every-day life in the Americas, for example in the areas of international athletics, procedures of greeting and degreeting, culinary practices, etc. This course will include presentations by three innovative guest scholars: it will also include an extensive use of audio-visual materials including slides, videos and audio recordings.

 

CU Directory of Classes


Africana Studies

Fall 2016: Gay Harlem

Africana Studies: BC3550
Call Number: 
01337
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
M 4:10pm-6:00pm
Instructor: 
Tyler T Schmidt

Fall 2016: Intro to Africana Studies

Africana Studies: BC2004
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
02457
Points: 
3
Location: 
tba
Day/Time: 
tba
Instructor: 
Yvette Christianse

Interdisciplinary and thematic approach to the study of Africa, moving from pre-colonial through colonial and post-colonial periods to contemporary Africa. Focus will be on its history, societal relations, politics and the arts. The objective is to provide a critical survey of the history as well as the continuing debates in African Studies.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in South Africa

Africana Studies: BC3098
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
03338
Points: 
3
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TBA
Instructor: 
Yvette Christianse

Fall 2016: Senior Seminar

Africana Studies: BC3998
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
07828
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
T 9:00am-10:50am
Instructor: 
Tina M Campt

A program of interdisciplinary research leading to the writing of the senior essay. All Africana majors must complete the one-semester Africana Studies Senior Seminar in the fall and submit a senior essay as one of the requirements for this course. A student who has successfully completed the Africana Studies Senior Seminar, has demonstrated the ability to complete a senior thesis, and has obtained approval from the faculty member teaching the Senior Seminar may take an Independent Study with a Barnard or Columbia faculty member or a second thesis seminar in another department in order to complete a senior thesis in Africana Studies in the spring semester.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: The Africana Colloquium

Africana Studies: BC3110
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
01852
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
T 12:10pm-2:00pm
Instructor: 
Monica L Miller

Prerequisites: Students must attend first day of class and admission will be decided then. Enrollment limited to 18 students. Priority will be given to Africana majors and CCIS students (Africana Studies, American Studies and Women's Studies majors; minors in Race and Ethnic Studies).

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Fall 2016: Unheard Voices: African Women

Africana Studies: BC3134
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
04111
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
T 2:10pm-4:00pm
Instructor: 
Yvette Christianse

Art History

Fall 2016: Arts of Africa

Art History: W2500
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
24562
Points: 
3
Location: 
832 Schermerhorn Hall [SCH]
Day/Time: 
M 2:40pm-3:55pm
Instructor: 
Zoe S Strother

Introduction to the arts of Africa, including masquerading, figural sculpture, reliquaries, power objects, textiles, painting, photography, and architecture. The course will establish a historical framework for study, but will also address how various African societies have responded to the process of modernity.

CU Directory of Classes


Contemporary Civilization and Literature Humanities

Fall 2016: African Civilization

Contemporary Civilization and Literature Humanities: CC1020
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
28147
Points: 
4
Location: 
402 Hamilton Hall
Day/Time: 
MW 4:10pm-6:00pm

This course provides a general introduction to some of the key intellectual debates in Africa by Africans through primary sources, including scholarly works, political tracts, fiction, art, and film. Beginning with an exploration of African notions of spiritual and philosophical uniqueness and ending with contemporary debates on the meaning and historical viability of an African Renaissance, this course explores the meanings of ‘Africa' and ‘being African.' Field(s): AFR*

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: African Civilization

Contemporary Civilization and Literature Humanities: CC1020
Section: 
002
Call Number: 
92078
Points: 
4
Location: 
306 Hamilton Hall
Day/Time: 
TR 4:10pm-6:00pm

This course provides a general introduction to some of the key intellectual debates in Africa by Africans through primary sources, including scholarly works, political tracts, fiction, art, and film. Beginning with an exploration of African notions of spiritual and philosophical uniqueness and ending with contemporary debates on the meaning and historical viability of an African Renaissance, this course explores the meanings of ‘Africa' and ‘being African.' Field(s): AFR*

 

CU Directory of Classes


Dance

Fall 2016: African Dance I

Dance BC2252
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
02678
Points: 
0-1
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TR 9:30am-10:30am
Instructor: 
Maguette Camara

Prerequisites: Permission of instructor. Concentrates on the dances of West Africa, including Senegal, Mali, and Guinea, and a variety of dances performed at various functions and ceremonies. Explanation of the origin and meaning of each dance will be an integral part of the material presented.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: African Dance I

Dance BC2252
Section: 
002
Call Number: 
03372
Points: 
0-1
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TR 11:40am-12:55pm
Instructor: 
Maguette Camara

Prerequisites: Permission of instructor. Concentrates on the dances of West Africa, including Senegal, Mali, and Guinea, and a variety of dances performed at various functions and ceremonies. Explanation of the origin and meaning of each dance will be an integral part of the material presented.

 

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: African Dance II

Dance BC2253
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
04932
Points: 
0-1
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TR 10:30am-11:30am
Instructor: 
Maguette Camara

Prerequisites: DNCE BC2252 or permission of instructor.    

 

CU Directory of Classes


English and Comparative Literature

Fall 2016: Black Paris

Comparative Literature: English W3300
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
91596
Points: 
3
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TR 10:10am-11:25am
Instructor: 
Brent H Edwards

(Lecture). An introduction to the deep engagement of peoples of African descent with the City of Light throughout the twentieth century. We will take up the full variety of black cultures that have taken shape in dialogue with Paris, including poetry, prose, journals and magazines, music, and film in English and French by African American as well as Francophone Caribbean and African artists and intellectuals. Our investigation will focus on a series of historical moments central to any understanding of black Paris: the efflorescence of the "Jazz Age" in the 1920s (especially through the many Harlem Renaissance artists who spent significant time in France); the emergence of the Négritude movement in the 1930s and 1940s (in relation to other currents such as surrealism, existentialism, and anti-imperialism); the great age of post-World War II expatriate writers such as James Baldwin and Richard Wright; and contemporary black culture in the hip hop era. Throughout the semester, we will discuss the political implications of thinking about black culture through the lens of Paris, whether at the height of the French colonial empire in the interwar period, during the US Civil Rights movement and the Algerian war of independence, or in relation to contemporary debates around religion and immigration. We will be especially attentive to ways Paris can be considered a culture capital of the African diaspora, through what Baldwin called "encounters on the Seine" among black intellectuals and artists from Africa, the Caribbean, and the United States. Readings may include fiction, poetry, and autobiography by authors such as Langston Hughes, Josephine Baker, Claude McKay, Ho Chi Minh, Aimé Césaire, Léopold Sédar Senghor, Jean-Paul Sartre, Cheikh Hamidou Kane, Richard Wright, James Baldwin, William Gardner Smith, Chester Himes, Melvin Van Peebles, Calixthe Beyala, Maryse Condé, and Marie NDiaye; and literary and historical scholarship by Edward Said, Tyler Stovall, Dominic Thomas, Christopher Miller, Pap Ndiaye, and Bennetta Jules-Rosette, among others. Requirements: weekly short reading responses; one take-home midterm; and one longer final research paper.

 

CU Directory of Classes


History Courses

Fall 2016: African Migration since 1900

History W3767
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
88018
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
T 10:10am-12:00pm
Instructor: 
John F III Straussberger

Fall 2016: Precolonial African Historiography

History: G8760
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
29129
Points: 
4
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
W 10:10am-12:00pm
Instructor: 
Rhiannon Stephens

This course is designed to introduce students to some of the methodological approaches of historians of Africa before 1900, and the range of debates and themes they engage with. We will explore historiographical shifts in the study of precolonial Africa. We will pay particular attention to how the source base and methodological approach shapes the kinds of arguments historians develop.  

CU Directory of Classes


International Affairs

Fall 2016: Citizenship & Social Movements in Africa

Citizenship and Social Movements in Africa
Section: 
U6410-001
Call Number: 
23247
Points: 
3
Location: 
402 International Affairs Building
Day/Time: 
M 11:00am-12:50pm
Instructor: 
Jinny Prais

This course focuses on social movements and citizenship in sub-Saharan Africa to examine how people form political and social movements and deploy citizenship strategies within social, historical, and economic structures that are both local and global. It draws on readings and lectures from scholars in history, political science, anthropology, sociology, and African studies to explore the following topics and themes: histories and theories of social movements and citizenship; cities and social movements and citizenship; citizenship outside the nation-state; social movements and democracy; citizenship as a creative enterprise that emphasizes claim-making and improvisation; citizenship within imperial, international, and national contexts; infrastructures, claim-making, and coalition building; opposition, leadership and democracy; and social movements of African youth and women. This course features guest lectures by and discussions with French, Moroccan and American scholars from Sciences-Po, Universite Paris 1, EGE-Rabat, NYU, and Columbia, and is part of the Joint African Studies Program (JASP) at the Institute of African Studies that is supported by the Partnership University Fund (PUF) and the Alliance Program at Columbia. It includes foundational readings on concepts, theories, and histories of social movements and citizenship in Africa as well as in-depth case studies on selective themes by various experts working on sub-Saharan Africa. It is unique insofar as it offers a strong foundation in social movements and citizenship while exposing students to in-depth case studies by leading experts working in a variety of disciplines and geographical contexts. All lectures and discussions are conducted in English.

Consult the CU Directory of Classes

 


Middle Eastern, South Asian, and African Studies

Fall 2016: A History of African Cities

Middle East W3915
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
17192
Points: 
3
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
T 4:10pm-6:00pm
Instructor: 
Mamadou Diouf

This seminar offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the history of African cities. It cuts across disciplinary boundaries of history, geography, anthropology, political and cultural sociology, literature and cultural studies, to explore the vaious trajectories of urbanization on the continent.

CU Directory of Classes

Fall 2016: East Africa and the Swahili Coast

Middle East: W3130
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
11247
Points: 
3
Location: 
114 Knox Hall
Day/Time: 
TR 2:40pm-3:55pm
Instructor: 
Kai Kresse

This course offers an introduction to East African history and society. It is intended primarily for those who have taken an introductory course in African studies, such as MDES W2030 Major Debates in the Study of Africa or AFCV 1020 African Civilization, or similar courses in South Asian or Middle Eastern studies. Students read anthropological and historical studies of the region, alongside works of literature by a number of leading East African writers. The course emphasizes the historical role of the Swahili coast and Swahili language as forces that shaped an interconnected world stretching far inland and across the Indian Ocean, but that also shaped adversity and antagonisms.CC/GS/SEAS: Partial Fulfillment of Global Core Requirement.

 

CU Directory of Classes


Political Science

Fall 2016: Contemporary African Politics

Political Science: W4496
Section: 
001
Call Number: 
74983
Points: 
3
Location: 
TBA
Day/Time: 
TR 1:10pm-2:25pm
Instructor: 
Kimuli Kasara

This course aims to teach students what, if any, answers social scientists have to the questions that concern anyone with an interest in African politics: 1) Why have democratic governments flourished in some countries and not others? 2) What institutions may enable Africans to hold their leaders accountable? 3) How do people participate in politics? 4) In what ways do aspiring African political leaders build public support? 5) To what extent does persistent poverty on the continent have political causes? and 6) Why is violence used to resolve some political disputes and not others?

CU Directory of Classes


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